Different things students can do:
- Look up pictures of Native Americans by these artists: Robert Griffing, John Buxton, Jack Paluk, and Andrew Knez Jr.
- Read one of the novels about captivity among the Indians. (Captives: Mary Jemison, Catharine Carey, Regina Hartman)
- Read accounts by early travelers, settlers, or missionaries who wrote about the Indians: Jesuit missionaries, Moravians, David Zeisburger, Conrad Weiser, John Heckewelder, and David Brainerd.
- Make a timeline about the historical events
- Visit local landmarks. Add local dates to timeline.
- Make a list of names from your area that came from Indian names.
- Visit the Harrisburg State Museum Indian exhibit. read more
Following is an outline you can use for your study:
Categories of Tribes
according to dialect with subtribes listed below
(These are only some of them. I provide this so that you don’t get confused about the different names. Slashes separate the names for the same tribe):
Delaware /Lenni Lenape/Lenape
Tuscarora (traveled through Pennsylvania)
1608 First recorded meeting between a white man and Pennsylvania Indians, John Smith
1615 Second recorded meeting between European and Susquehannock, Etienne Brule
1624 Fur trading with Indians begins.
1626-1656 Beaver Wars/Iroquois Wars/French and Iroquois Wars
1650 population record-5000 mostly Dutch and Swedes living in Delaware Valley with 24,000 Delaware Indians
1661-1675 Susquehannocks reduced to a few hundred.
1681 King Charles II of Britain grants land in New World to William Penn.
1682 William Penn pays Lenapes, Shawnees, and Susquehannock for land along the Delaware River.
1726 John, Thomas, and Richard Penn, sons of William Penn become joint proprietors of Pennsylvania.
1727 Chief Shickellamy is appointed by the Iroquois to be in charge of Indians in Susquehanna River valley.
1737 Walking Purchase
1745-1808 David Zeisberger, a Moravian, ministers to Lenape and Iroquois.
1755-1813 John Heckewelder, a Moravian, ministers to the Lenape.
1791 U.S. General Assembly gave Chief Cornplanter land on Upper Allegheny River.
Types of Homes
Tanned hide, white man’s coat, breechclout, leggings, beadwork, belt, robe, wampum, and moccasins
Hair and Hair Ornaments
Men-scalp lock, women-long, buck tail, porcupine quills
piercings, earrings, necklaces, arm bands, tattoos, face paint
Three Sisters, fish, flesh, fowl, insects, nuts, potatoes, wild peas, berries, maple syrup
Chief Shikellamy, Chief Cornplanter
|Tad Sieber's Chief Cornplanter|
drawn from Frederick Bartoli's 1796 portrait
Carlisle Indian School
(Good website) http://www.native-languages.org/
(Basic greetings) http://www.native-languages.org/pennsylvania-greetings.htm
All things have souls, legends, dreams,visions, creation stories, Christian Indians
Carmody, John M., Pennsylvania: A Guide to the Keystone State, Federal Works Agency, 1940, Living Places, Gomback Group, 1997-2008. http://www.livingplaces.com/PA/Pennsylvania_Indians.html, Jan. 12, 2009. Web.
Graybill, Guy, Keystone: A History of Pennsylvania,
Design, Inc., Gratz, PA. 2004. Print. Penn
Runkle, Stephan A., “Key Events related to Native American History of the Susquehanna River Basin Region from First Contact with Europeans to the French and Indian War.” Feb. 23, 2007. Handout.
Runkle, Stephan A., Native American Life, January 16, 2012, Juniata County Library, Mifflintown, Pennsylvania. Lecture.
Thomas, David Hurst, et al, The Native Americans, World Publications, Inc., MA 2001. Print.
Wallace, Paul A. W. Indians in Pennsylvania. Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 2005. Print.